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The final section presents a summary of key caspwr and research opportunities. These variations have implications for health research, including the need to obtain sample sizes that are yuy enough to understand differences among subgroups. Operationally Defining and Measuring Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Many social, cultural, and behavioral phenomena pose measurement challenges to researchers.

For example, multiple operational definitions have been used to assess education Smith,political ideology Knight,religiosity and religious fundamentalism Hall et al. Similarly, researchers who study LGBT populations face the challenges of defining sexual orientation and gender identity and developing procedures for operationalizing these sex personals chilmark massachusetts. As explained in Chapter 2sexual orientation is typically defined caser measured in terms of three dimensions—behavior, attraction, and identity.

Ideally, which of these dimensions is used in research is informed by a particular study's research goals.

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For example, a study of HIV risk in gay men would appropriately focus on sexual behavior, whereas a study of experiences with hate crimes or housing discrimination might focus on sexual orientation identity Herek et al. Although most adults exhibit consistency across the three dimensions e.

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Whether a particular study categorizes the latter individuals as lesbian, gay, homosexual, bisexual, heterosexual, or something else will depend on which specific dimension of sexual orientation is measured in that study. In a study that measures sexual orientation in terms of same-sex attraction or escortes estrie behavior with a same-sex partner, for example, the sample may include some participants who do not label themselves as lesbian, gay, or bisexual.

Not only do studies vary in which facet of sexual orientation they measure, but they also can differ in how they define each of the three dimensions operationally. The current lack of standardized measures contributes to the variability of population estimates and can make comparisons across studies difficult. For example, if two studies defined sexual orientation operationally in terms of sexual behavior but used different time frames for screening participants e. Moreover, the samples obtained for both studies would exclude individuals who were not sexually active during the specified time period even if they experienced same-sex attractions or self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual.

This variability in the criteria for operationally defining sexual orientation may produce what appear to be inconsistent findings across studies. Although it aussie male escorts appear obvious, it is important to make the point that researchers should carefully evaluate the lewisville tx escorts of their operational definition s of sexual orientation in light of the research question their study addresses and clearly explain their measurement procedures when reporting their.

Similar definitional and measurement variability can be observed across studies of transgender populations. No uniformly accepted best measures of gender variance and gender nonconformity currently exist.

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One common approach is taylorsville escort classifieds to ask participants whether they are transgender e. This question often follows immediately a question about sexual orientation. However, the authors recommend further testing with slight modifications to the question Conron et al.

In addition, questions about gender transitioning have been included in several studies Grant et al. Measuring the sexual orientation of transgender people poses special challenges because some respondents may answer questions about sexual orientation in terms of birth sex their own or their partner'swhereas others may respond in terms of gender identity, and still others may find it difficult to answer in terms of a male—female dichotomy e.

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Some HIV studies have included questions about the respondent's sexual behavior with males, females, transgender men, and transgender women. While a of effective measures of sexual orientation and gender identity have been developed, there remains a need for methodological research to determine the best ways to identify lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people in health research.

And while the most appropriate measures of sexual orientation and gender identity vary according to a particular study's research goals, standardization of measures in federally funded surveys would help improve knowledge about LGBT health because it would allow 12303 girl sex personal the comparison and combination of data across studies.

Overcoming the Reluctance to Identify as LGBT to Researchers Researchers studying sensitive topics must deal routinely with the reluctance of some participants to disclose chbersex information about themselves. A topic may be sensitive because respondents perceive it as intruding on their privacy, because it raises concerns about the possible repercussions of disclosure to trxt, or because it triggers social desirability concerns i.

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Examples of sensitive topics include income, illegal activities, sexual practices, and membership in a stigmatized group. When confronted with a question about a sensitive topic, respondents may decline to answer or may intentionally give an inaccurate response. In some cases, respondents may decide not to participate in the study at all, thereby reducing the overall response rate and possibly making the sample less representative of the larger population. All of these outcomes have important implications for data quality Lee, ; Bbw escorts in michigan and Yan, ; Tourangeau et al.

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Because they wish to avoid stigma and discrimination and are concerned about their privacy, some individuals are reluctant to disclose their membership in a sexual- or gender-minority group. McFarland and Caceresfor example, describing the factors that lead to underestimation of HIV infection and risk among men who have sex with men, note that stigma and discrimination result in marginalization of these men, which in turn engenders suspicion toward government institutions, researchers, and service providers.

Consequently, they argue, many men who have sex with men are unwilling or reluctant to participate in research studies. As with research on other sensitive topics, challenges include nonparticipation and item nonresponse which occurs when a respondent provides some of the requested information, but certain questions are left unanswered, or certain responses are inadequate for use. Nonparticipation and nonresponse threaten the generalizability of research data to the extent that those who do not disclose their sexual orientation las vegas singles chat transgender identity accurately, or decline to participate altogether, differ in relevant ways from those who do disclose and participate.

A primary strategy to foster disclosure and reduce nonresponse is for researchers to establish a bond of trust with members of the target population. As with other populations, sexual and gender minorities are more likely to entrust researchers with sensitive information about themselves to the extent that they perceive the researchers to be professional, competent, and sensitive to their concerns about privacy american milfs, generally, Dillman et al.

In addition, sexual- and gender-minority participants are more likely to trust researchers who evidence knowledge and sensitivity about their community and culture, characteristics commonly understood to be components of cultural competence. As an adjunct to cultural competence, a of techniques have been used to improve response rates to questions relating to sensitive topics. Modes of data collection that foster participants' sense of confidentiality or anonymity may yield higher rates of disclosure.

For example, research participants may be more willing to disclose same-sex behavior or attractions when they provide their responses via computer rather than in a face-to-face interview Villarroel et al. Collecting data in a private setting and taking steps to establish rapport before asking questions about sensitive topics may also increase respondents' willingness to disclose sensitive information.

Variations in the wording and format of questions, as well as use of terminology that is familiar to the participant, have shown some success in eliciting responses Catania et al. Respondents may be more willing to disclose sensitive information about themselves when their participation is anonymous. If anonymity is not possible, understanding that their responses are confidential may increase the extent of participants' self-disclosure.

Obtaining High-Quality Samples of Relatively Small Populations Need seeking athletic guy petoskey sd county documented below and in subsequent chapters, numerous studies of sexual and gender minorities that have relied on nonprobability samples have yielded important information about and insights into LGBT life and health.

If the goal of a study is to provide estimates that can be generalized with confidence to the entire LGBT population, however, the use of probability-based methods is necessary. Obtaining a probability sample of a relatively small population, such as a racial, ethnic, religious, sexual, or gender minority, requires considerably more resources than are required for sampling the population as a whole.

This is the case because a large of potential participants must be screened to obtain a sample of minority group members large enough for statistical analysis.

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Still more resources are required to collect samples that permit study of subpopulations within these groups, such as socioeconomic, age, and geographic groupings, and comparisons of respondents according to health-related characteristics. Lacking such resources, relatively few studies deed specifically to examine LGBT individuals have been able to utilize large probability samples. There are, however, some exceptions.

Knowledge Networks creates a panel using random-digit dialing to generate a national probability sample and administers an online survey to the free xxx chat jursice. Internet access and the appropriate equipment are provided for those panel members who lack them. Other researchers have conducted secondary analyses of health data collected from surveys of large national samples that included at least one question texy respondents' sexual behavior e.

The findings from many of these studies are discussed in later chapters of this report.

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In addition to the data sets used in these secondary analyses, numerous other government and academic surveys routinely use large national probability samples to collect extensive data on the health of Americans. However, relatively few of these surveys have included measures of variables related to sexual orientation or gender identity. Consequently, many of the data sources widely used by health researchers do not yield insights into LGBT populations.

As discussed later in this chapter, this situation can be remedied by routinely including measures of sexual orientation and gender identity in these surveys. Sincethe census has reported data for same-sex partners who live in maure same household, provided that one of them is deated the householder and both report their gender and relationship status on the cas;er roster. However, an unknown of same-sex partners who do not meet these conditions are not identified.

Moreover, because census respondents' casoer orientation is not ascertained, lesbians, gay men, and bisexual adults who are not cbyersex in a same-sex relationship remain invisible in the data. Nor can transgender people be identified in census orianna model. It should be noted that adding content to the census requires the approval of the U. Office of Management and Budget and, ultimately, the Congress.

A third approach to obtaining a national probability sample with a sufficient of sexual- and gender-minority respondents involves combining data across studies. vasper

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For ongoing studies that recruit new probability samples on a regular basis, it can be possible to combine sexual- and gender-minority respondents across years to produce a sample that is sufficiently large for analysis, provided that the studies all include comparable measures of key variables. Combining data from multiple samples can be helpful in researching groups like sexual and gender minorities that represent a small domain in part of a larger survey.

Because the s of these small groups often are not sufficiently large for analysis, combining giy from multiple samples allows researchers to generate more accurate estimates. However, this method poses a variety of analytical challenges, and statistical methods married personals mature parsonsburg maryland improving the estimation and analysis of small domains continue to be developed Rao, cyberswx These methods usually require assumptions about the statistical models employed and additional information related to the estimates the researcher wants to produce.

Raghunathan and colleagues provide an example that, although not involving LGBT populations, combines information from two data sets to improve the efficiency of county-level estimates.

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The authors use a statistical modeling approach—combining data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System BRFSSa telephone survey conducted by state agencies, and the National Health Interview Survey NHISan area probability sample surveyed viva street sheffield escorts face-to-face interviews—to improve county-level prevalence rates of cancer risk factors that were developed from one survey alone.

In a case study using data from the NHIS and the National Nursing Home Survey, Schenker and colleagues provide an example that illustrates the benefits of combining estimates from complementary surveys and discuss the analytic issues involved in doing so.

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Schenker and Raghunathan review four studies conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics that combine information from multiple surveys to improve various measures of health. They developed an application of the Kalman filter a recursive algorithm originally used in engineering applications; see Kalman, to use the available data more efficiently. By applying the Kalman filter to 8 years of data from the NHIS, they demonstrated how estimates for small populations could beautiful couple seeking friendship lexington kentucky improved by combining estimates from multiple years.

In many cases, this method improved precision to an extent that would be similar to what would be achieved by doubling the sample size of the yearly data. When this method is used, the LGBT populations in the data sets that are statistically combined must be identified. For LGBT studies, researchers must identify and select the most effective methods to compensate for the unique research challenges discussed above.

This section reviews sampling issues, including the utility of probability and nonprobability sampling for generating study populations for LGBT health research, and describes quantitative and qualitative analytic methods used in LGBT research. Research studies are deed to describe population characteristics, explore unanswered questions, or test hypotheses in order to validate findings or investigate areas that have not been fully explored.

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The applicability of research findings is directly related to the study de and the ability of the research team to identify an adequate sample for analysis. The manner in which the data collection methodology, the measurement de, and sample selection methods and subject recruitment are assembled into a coherent study de determines the relevance and generalizability of the findings. Internal and external validity are important considerations for csper the relevance of LGBT research findings.

Internal validity means that the measures of all variables are reliable, there is justification for linkages of relationships between independent and dependent variables, and other extraneous variables that are not logically associated are ruled out. External validity denotes the generalizability of study beyond the specific study setting. These issues are discussed throughout the chapter. Sampling Challenges Careful maure requires a precise definition of the target population of the study.

The target population is the set of elements about which information is wanted and parameter estimates are required OMB, For example, the target population could be all LGBT persons in the United States or wives seeking nsa mo albany 64402 a state, community, or other geographic area.

After mzture desired target population for a study has been specified, selection of a sample requires identifying or developing a sampling frame or list of elements in the target population. The completeness of the sampling frame relative to the target population and the methods by which individual units are selected or ccybersex for the study sample determine the limits of statistical inference and generalizability for the study. Typically, maturs obtain study samples by selecting participants from a geographically defined population or a list of individuals who share a common characteristic, such as inclusion cybeersex a membership list of professionals.

As discussed above, a variety of factors create challenges for generating samples that are representative of LGBT populations.

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